Whats the difference between migrants, asylum seekers and refugees?

I do not own the rights to the video above. The video was taken from the public domain and is being shared for educational purposes only.

Police in the U.S. Killed 164 people in the first 8 months of 2020.

“Police have killed at least one Black man or woman every week in 2020”

This is a prime example of State Sponsored Terrorism & Persecution.

“Police in the U.S. killed 164 Black people in the First 8 months of 2020. These are their names.”https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/black-people-killed-by-police-in-the-u-s-in-2020/2/https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/black-people-killed-by-police-in-the-u-s-in-2020/2/

I Am the Spirit of Harriet Tubman 2021

In 2021, the Underground Railroad will emerge again. This time, the pathway will be different. This blog serves as a space for dialogue and resources for Black Americans who are interested in leaving the United States to move abroad or those who are already abroad and are afraid to return the USA due to fear of persecution….but not as an Expat…rather, as an Asylum Seeker – fleeing State Sponsored Terrorism, Genocide, and Police Brutality.

Who am I? I am taking on the name of a hero: Harriet “Moses” Tubman. I prefer the identity of my hero over the use of “Nobody”; as I prefer to keep my identity anonymous.

I am an Expert in Migration and Development Studies and a Cultural Anthropologist. I am a nomad and I have lived in 7 different U.S. states and in Ghana & Nigeria.

There are two sides to “Migration”, it comprises: Emigration studies and Immigration studies. Development studies focus more on nation state formations, government systems, social systems & networks, economies, (issues surrounding anthropology of the state etc). 

I have a vast and thorough knowledge and understanding of international human rights laws and asylum rights. I also have an extensive background in African & African American Studies with emphasis on the U.S. Civil Rights, and the Civil Rights Movement. I am also an expert researcher, having conducted research in the fields of: migration & development, business analyst researcher for company acquisitions, market research, medical research, immigration research, civil unrest, nation state formation, and human trafficking ..aka slavery.

Disclaimer: This blog is an expression of my personal opinions and is in no way a representation of, or affiliated with any employer, government entities or organizations.

In this blog I will utilize my First Amendment Rights of Freedom of Speech and share information on what Asylum is on an international scale. The reader will learn about:

  • The International Human Rights Laws that the United States is, and has been violating, and provide information on options for seeking asylum in a country outside of the U.S. (are there benefits to this? the answer is “Yes”)
  • International Laws that protect our human rights to live
  • United Nations information on Seeking Asylum
  • Evidence of Trump Administration & State Sponsored Terrorism and Genocide
  • Discussions on Countries of Interests (This blog is organic and will grow information with time as needed.)
  • Provide a chat for dialogue so that we can brainstorm on the country that you are interested in.
  • Explain the difference between begin an Expat and An Asylum Seeker.

Please feel free to share, like and comment on this issue. If you ask about a country I will provide any information I can that is within the public domain. The WORLD is YOURS, so seek and you will find what you need to “LIVE” again. Peace and Blessings to you ALL.. Only pure LOVE is manifest from this blog.

ACLU African American Expat African American Global Travel African Americans Abroad Aslyum Asylum seeker Black Exit Black Expat Black Foodie Black Living Abroad Black Love Black Travel Abroad Civil Unrest in USA Excessive Abuse Exodus Expat Exit Harriet Tubman Living Abroad migrant rights Persecution Police Brutality Protection Proud Boys Seattle Times refugee Safety Simple living terrorism Travel Underground Railroad United Nations

United Kingdom – How to Seek Asylum


You must apply for asylum if you want to stay in the UK as a refugee.

To be eligible you must have left your country and be unable to go back because you fear persecution.

Apply for a visa if you want to come to the UK for another reason (for example to work, study or remain with family). If you’re already in the UK and want to remain with family living here, apply for a family of a settled person visa.

You should apply when you arrive in the UK or as soon as you think it would be unsafe for you to return to your own country. Your application is more likely to be denied if you wait.

After you apply you’ll have a meeting with an immigration officer (known as a ‘screening’) and then an asylum interview with a caseworker.

You’ll usually get a decision on your application within 6 months.

You can get up to 2 years in prison or have to leave the UK if you give false information on your application.

Waiting for your decision

You’ll be told after your screening what you must do while you’re waiting for your asylum decision, for example report to a caseworker regularly (known as ‘reporting meetings’).

You must tell the authorities if your situation changes.

You will not usually be allowed to work while your asylum claim is being considered.

Help you can get

You can get help with:

  • getting legal representation for your asylum claim
  • living in the UK while you wait for your decision

Children applying on their own

You can apply as a child on your own if you do not have an adult relative who is also claiming asylum.


Documents you must provide to the U.K:

Documents you must provide

You’ll need documents for yourself and your dependants (partner and children under 18) for your asylum screening.

Documents you should bring (if you have them) include:

  • passports and travel documents
  • police registration certificates
  • identification documents, for example identity cards, birth and marriage certificates or school records
  • anything you think will help your application

Documents to prove your UK address

If you’re already in the UK, you and your dependants must bring documents that prove your UK address.

You’ll need different documents depending on whether you’re living in your own accommodation or staying with someone else.

Living in your own accommodation

You’ll need to provide documents showing your full name and address. This could be a:

  • bank statement
  • housing benefit book
  • council tax notice
  • tenancy agreement
  • household bill

Staying with someone else

You’ll need to provide:

  • a recent letter (less than 3 months old) from the person you’re staying with to confirm you have their permission to stay
  • documents showing the full name and address of the person you’re staying with, like a council tax notice, tenancy agreement or household bill

Print entire guidehttps://www.gov.uk/claim-asylum/documents

How to get legal help with asylum in U.K:

Help you can get

You can get help from asylum helplines run by charities.

They can help with:

  • explaining your asylum claim, for example getting a solicitor or lawyer to represent you
  • living in the UK while your claim is being considered, for example getting asylum support, housing problems, dealing with agencies or finding English language classes and schools

You can get legal advice to help your asylum claim.

Housing and money

You may also be able to get housing and money (‘asylum support’) to support you and your family. This will only start from the day of your screening if you qualify.

Help returning home

You may be able to get help with returning home.

8 Stages of Genocide

By Dr. Gregory H. Stanton, President, Genocide Watch

Classification Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages
Symbolization that are predictable, but not inexorable. At each
Dehumanization stage, preventive measures can stop it.
Organization It is not a linear process, but logically
Polarization the later stages must be preceded
Preparation by the earlier stages. Logically prior
Extermination stages continue to operate
Denial throughout the process.
© 1998 Gregory H. Stanton

  1. CLASSIFICATION: All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by
    ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality: German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi. Bipolar societies that lack
    mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide. The main
    preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or
    racial divisions, that actively promote tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications
    that transcend the divisions. The Catholic church could have played this role in Rwanda, had it not
    been riven by the same ethnic cleavages as Rwandan society. Promotion of a common language in
    countries like Tanzania, the U.S., and Thailand has also promoted transcendent national identity.
    This search for common ground is vital to early prevention of genocide.
  2. SYMBOLIZATION: We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people
    “Jews” or “Gypsies”, or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply them to members of groups.
    Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide
    unless they lead to the next stage, dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be
    forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule, the blue
    scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia. To combat symbolization, hate
    symbols can be legally forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing
    or tribal scarring can be outlawed, as well. The problem is that legal limitations will fail if
    unsupported by popular cultural enforcement. Though Hutu and Tutsi were forbidden words in
    Burundi until the 1980’s, code-words replaced them. If widely supported, however, denial of
    symbolization can be powerful, as it was in Bulgaria, when Bulgarian religious authorities denounced
    and the government refused to distribute the yellow star, depriving it of its significance as a Nazi
    symbol for Jews. In Denmark, Nazis did not even distribute them because Christians, and according
    to legend, the King said they would be the first to wear them; Danish “fisherman” smuggled most of
    Denmark’s Jews to neutral Sweden.
  3. DEHUMANIZATION: One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are
    equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human
    revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify
    the victim group. In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be confused
    with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech,
    and should be treated differently than in democracies. Hate radio stations should be shut down, and
    hate propaganda banned. Hate crimes and atrocities should be promptly punished.
    Genocide Watch is the Coordinator of the International Campaign to End Genocide
    P.O. Box 809, Washington, D.C. 20044 USA. Phone: 703-448-0222
    E-mail:genocidewatch@aol.com Web: http://www.genocidewatch.org
  4. ORGANIZATION: Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, though sometimes
    informally (Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants) or by terrorist groups. Special army units or
    militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings. To combat this stage,
    membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their leaders should be denied visas for foreign
    travel. The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved
    in genocidal massacres, and create commissions to investigate violations.
  5. POLARIZATION: Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing
    propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets
    moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Prevention may mean security protection for
    moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of extremists may be seized, and visas
    denied to them. Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions.
  6. PREPARATION: Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious
    identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols.
    Their property is expropriated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, forced into concentration
    camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. At this stage, a Genocide Alert must be
    called. If the political will of a lead nation, a regional alliance, and the U.N. Security Council can be
    mobilized, armed international intervention should be prepared, or heavy assistance to the victim
    group in preparing for its self-defense. Otherwise, humanitarian assistance should be organized for
    the inevitable tide of refugees.
  7. EXTERMINATION begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is
    “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human. When it is
    sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing. Sometimes the
    genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other, creating the downward whirlpoollike cycle of bilateral genocide (as in Burundi). At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed
    intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established
    with heavily armed international protection. A U.N. or regional rapid intervention force should be
    mobilized by the U.N. Security Council if the genocide is just starting. For larger interventions, a
    multilateral force authorized by the U.N., should intervene. It is time for nations to recognize that the
    international law of humanitarian intervention transcends the “sovereign” interests of individual
    nation states. When the U.N. will not intervene directly, leading nations should provide the airlift,
    equipment, and financial means necessary for regional alliances to intervene with U.N. authorization.
  8. DENIAL is the eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of
    further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies,
    try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes,
    and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue
    to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. There they remain with
    impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.
    The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts. There the
    evidence is heard, and the perpetrators punished. Tribunals like the Yugoslav or Rwanda Tribunals,
    the tribunal to try the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, or the International Criminal Court may not deter
    the worst killers. But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some may be brought to
    justice. And such courts may deter future potential genocidists who can never again share Hitler’s
    expectation of impunity when he sneered, “Who, after all, remembers the annihilation of the


What does this look like in real life? I DO NOT OWN THE RIGHTS TO THESE PUBLICLY AVAILABLE VIDEOS: https://youtu.be/HlKu6Whdilo

Mexico – Asylum Information

Mexico works with the United Nations to process refugee and asylum issues.

How to Apply for Refugee Status in Mexico

If you are afraid of returning to your country, you can apply for protection as a refugee in Mexico. The process is free and confidential.

You will find detailed information about the process of applying for protection as a refugee in Mexico below.

Submitting an Application

You can apply for refugee status at the Mexican Commission for Refugee Assistance (COMAR) in Mexico City, Acayucan in the state of Veracruz, Tenosique in the state of Tabasco, Tapachula and Palenque in the state of Chiapas, Monterrey in the state of Nuevo León, Tijuana in the state of Baja California, or the Office of Immigration Regulation of the National Institute of Immigration (INM) in the rest of the country within 30 business days following your arrival to Mexico.

If you have been in Mexico for more than 30 days, contact the authorities and explain why you couldn’t contact them before.

COMAR will ask you to fill out a form explaining why you left your country. If your family is with you, don’t forget to include them in the application. If they are in your country of origin, you must provide that information.

When you submit your application, it will be accepted by COMAR, which then issues a Certificate proving that you have started the process. They will give you a temporary Unique Population Registry Code (CURP), which you can use to perform other procedures and access public services.

When you apply for protection as a refugee, you have the right to not be sent back to your country. With the Certificate, you can also apply for a Visitor Card for Humanitarian Reasons through the INM, which allows you to work while the application is being processed.

You can also contact COMAR from a migratory station and submit the application from there. Ask them to put you in touch with COMAR.

You are entitled to have a lawyer throughout the process. Contact UNHCR so we can assist you by recommending you one that will help you free of charge.

Assistance Interview

The purpose of this interview is to get to know you and identify your needs in order to facilitate your access to procedures and services.

Eligibility Interview

COMAR interviews you to understand the reasons why you left your country. You will also explain why you don’t want to or can’t go back. It is important that you provide as many details as possible.

If you have any information or documents related to your case, you should submit them, but you should know that you don’t need proof of what happened in your country.

The interview will be carried out individually. You may also choose to be interviewed by a man or a woman. Also, if you don’t speak Spanish, you are entitled to have an interpreter or translator during the process.

Application Decision

COMAR will study your case. They can take up to 55 business days (Monday through Friday, not including weekends and Mexican holidays) after the date indicated in your certificate to give you the result. This term is divided into 45 business days to make a decision, followed by 10 additional days to inform you of the result. In some cases, COMAR may extend the deadline another 45 business days.

Due to the COVID-19 health emergency, as of March 24, 2020 and until further notice, these terms are suspended.

What to Do after Receiving the Decision

If it is positive: In coordination with COMAR, you will go to the National Institute of Immigration (INM) to process your Permanent Residency in Mexico as a refugee. All your family members included in the application will be recognized as refugees and now your CURP will be permanent. Processing your permanent residency will allow you to live anywhere in Mexico.

If it is negative: You are entitled to appeal within 15 business days (Monday through Friday, not including Mexican holidays) following your notification. COMAR will then review your case for a second time. This can take up to 90 calendar days (Monday through Sunday). If you don’t have a lawyer free of charge, you can go to any branch of the Federal Public Defender’s Office.

If COMAR rejects your case a second time, you are entitled to receive the advice of a lawyer to continue the appeal before a judge.

Bear in mind that during the refugee status recognition process:

  • You must state the truth at all times;
  • If you don’t speak Spanish, you can request the assistance of an interpreter;
  • You must remain in the state where you submitted the application. If you want to go to another state, you must request COMAR’s authorization. Note that if you change states without COMAR’s authorization, your case may be dropped;
  • Go each week to the offices of COMAR or the INM where you submitted the application to sign the register indicating you are in the state;
  • Attend all interviews requested by COMAR.https://help.unhcr.org/mexico/en/como-solicitar-la-condicion-de-refugiado-en-mexico/

How Do I Apply?

How can an individual apply for asylum in Mexico? – pay attention to the 30 days!!!

An individual applies for asylum by submitting an application to COMAR or Mexico’s National Institute of Migration (INM) within 30 days of entering Mexico. COMAR along with INM process refugee and asylum claims.

After submitting an application form with personal information including reasons for leaving the country of origin, COMAR schedules interviews at which an applicant explains the facts that motivated his or her departure from the country of origin and provides supporting evidence. When necessary, the Mexican government is required to provide the applicant with assistance from a translator or interpreter. Applicants can be transferred to detention centers and held in detention thttps://immigrationforum.org/article/mexicos-asylum-system-is-inadequate/hroughout the duration of the application process.

Video: Who is an Asylum Seeker? What are Human Rights?

This video is not owned by me. It is owned by the producer and I am in no way attempting to own this video. It is being used for informational purposes only.

This video is not owned by me. It is owned by the producer and I am in no way attempting to own this video. It is being used for informational purposes only.

The Right to Life

This video is not owned by me. It is owned by the producer and I am in no way attempting to own this video. It is being used for informational purposes only.

What are the expectations? what do I need to say? what should I do?

The country that you present yourself to will want to know a few things:

  1. What is your story and why do you feel as if you and/or your ethnic group are being persecuted?
  2. Who is doing the persecuting?
  3. Do you have actual evidence of being abused by police, the state, healthcare providers (disparities in health) etc? if so, write your story down and be willing to tell it.
  4. Are other people discussing the issue of persecution as well? the voice of others supports your claim. Go to the blog and search for “State Sponsored Terrorism” and you will find loads of data to support your claims.
  5. Voices of political leaders, celebrities, scholars, etc. all support our claims of persecution. You will need the ACLU’s take on the issue and the United Nations take, and response as well. These are global voices, you want as many global, national, and personal voices to support your claim. This topic is highly political as no Black American has ever received asylum from the U.S. due to persecution.

Stay strong, we WILL make the WORLD recognize our PLIGHT..

Your goal is to prove that you are being persecuted against by a strong power such as a government entity, or a gang, etc. for more info click on the: State Sponsored Terrorism section

Canada Asylum Information

Claiming asylum in Canada – what happens?

From: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada


The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act requires that every person seeking to enter Canada must appear for an examination at a port of entry to determine whether that person has a right to enter Canada, or may become authorized to enter and remain in Canada.

The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) play an instrumental role in protecting Canada’s border, deterring and intercepting irregular entry to Canada and keeping Canadians safe. CBSA, the RCMP and its domestic and international partners work together to intercept individuals who enter Canada irregularly. The RCMP is responsible for border security in between ports of entry, while the CBSA is responsible for border security at ports of entry and inland.

Making an asylum claim in Canada

Individuals can make an asylum claim in Canada at a port of entry or at an inland CBSA or Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) office. CBSA or IRCC officials will determine if an individual is eligible to make a claim. Factors determining an individual’s eligibility to make a refugee claim include whether the claimant has committed a serious crime, made a previous claim in Canada, or received protection in another country.

Asylum claimants are different from resettled refugees. Asylum seekers make a refugee claim in Canada at a Port of Entry or at an in-land office (CBSA or IRCC). These claims are governed in part by international treaties that Canada has promised to uphold. Resettled refugees, on the other hand, are screened abroad and undergo security and medical checks prior to being issued a visa to come to Canada. When they arrive in Canada, they are permanent residents. As asylum claimants and resettled refugees come to Canada through different immigration streams, those who are crossing the border irregularly and claiming asylum in Canada are not queue jumpers, and are not taking the place of refugees who are coming to Canada from abroad for resettlement.

All refugee claimants undergo health and security screening, including biographic and biometric checks as well as the initiation of security and criminality checks.

Irregular crossings into Canada

Some individuals enter Canada irregularly between designated ports of entry. This can be dangerous and is a violation of the law. For legal and personal safety reasons, the Government of Canada continues to urge people to seek entry into Canada only at designated ports of entry.

People who are intercepted by the RCMP or local law enforcement after crossing the border irregularly are brought to the nearest CBSA port of entry or inland CBSA or IRCC office (whichever is closest), where an officer will conduct an immigration examination, including considering whether detention is warranted. At this point, individuals undergo health checks to address any immediate health needs, as well as security screenings to ensure that they do not pose a security threat to Canada and to determine whether they are eligible to make a refugee claim. These screenings include biographic and biometric checks (for example, fingerprinting). If required, a refugee claim will be started. Foreign nationals who are not intercepted by law enforcement often make their own way to the nearest IRCC or CBSA office and make a claim for refugee protection.

If the claim is determined to be eligible, it will be referred to the Refugee Protection Division of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) for a hearing. In most cases, the foreign national will be released on terms and conditions while they await their hearing.

Individuals whose claim is found not to be eligible will be issued a removal order and released on conditions to report for a future removal proceeding. Foreign nationals who are required to leave Canada may be offered a Pre-Removal Risk Assessment (PRRA) by CBSA. Although CBSA starts the process, it is IRCC which conducts the PRRA prior to an individual’s removal from Canada. A PRRA assesses the risk an individual would face if returned to their home country.

Waiting for a decision on a refugee claim

All eligible refugee claimants receive a fair hearing at the IRB, an independent, quasi-judicial tribunal. Each case is decided on its merits, based on the evidence and arguments presented.

In making its decisions, the IRB considers whether the claimant meets the United Nations (UN) definition of a Convention refugee, which has been adopted into Canadian law, or is a person in need of protection. The UN defines Convention refugees as people who have a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, political opinion, nationality, or membership in a particular social group. Under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, a person in need of protection is a person in Canada who would be subjected personally to a danger of torture, a risk to their life, or a risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment if they were returned to their home country.

Once an individual has been determined to be eligible to make a claim in Canada, as a refugee claimant they may have access to social assistance, education, health services, emergency housing and legal aid while a decision is pending on their claim. In addition, most individuals found to be eligible to make a refugee claim can apply for a work permit once they have undergone a medical examination. It does not matter if the claim was made at the border or at an inland office.

In general, IRB hearings take place in the province where the individual made their refugee claim. That province provides the services listed above to the refugee claimant. Should the claimant decide to move provinces while they are waiting to have their claim heard by the IRB (for example, they claim refugee status in Quebec then move to Ontario), they would need to inform the IRB, IRCC and the CBSA of this move, and provide their new address. In addition, the refugee claimant would need to inform the province they are leaving of the move and apply for services in their new province. Of the cases that are heard, a decision is generally finalized in approximately four months.

Except for health services, which are funded by the Government of Canada (Interim Federal Health Program), provision of all these supports is the responsibility of provinces and territories. Municipalities or non-profit organizations also provide some supports.

The Government of Canada also provides funding through the Canada Social Transfer, which is a federal block transfer to provinces and territories in support of post-secondary education, programs for children, social assistance and other social programs. This is provided on an equal per capita basis to the provinces in accordance with Statistic Canada’s annual population estimates. The population estimates include persons who are claiming refugee status and the family members living with them. The Canada Social Transfer will provide $14.586 billion in 2019-2020 to the provinces and territories.

Refugee claimants are not eligible for federal settlement services until they receive a positive refugee determination; however, they are eligible for some settlement services funded by provinces.

Receiving a decision on a refugee claim

Positive decision

Upon receiving a positive decision on their refugee claim, claimants receive protected person status with the full spectrum of federally funded settlement services becoming available to them. A positive Pre-Removal Risk Assessment decision also results in protected person status for the individual in most cases. This means that individuals can stay in Canada and apply to become a permanent resident in most cases. These support services include:

  • needs assessment and referrals,
  • information and orientation to help newcomers make informed settlement decisions,
  • language assessment and training to help adult newcomers function in Canadian society and contribute to the economy,
  • support for finding and retaining employment, including referrals to assess foreign credentials, and
  • providing connections whereby newcomers can meet people and better integrate into their new communities.

Negative decision

If a claim is rejected by the Refugee Protection Division, individuals may be able to appeal the decision to the Refugee Appeal Division of the IRB. If individuals have no right to appeal to the Refugee Appeal Division, they can ask the Federal Court to review the decision.

Once all avenues of appeal have been exhausted, the conditional removal order that was issued at the time the refugee claim was initially made becomes enforceable in order to allow for removal of the individuals.

Failed refugee claimants who are under removal orders may not be eligible for social assistance, depending on the province. Please contact the provinces directly for more information.

The CBSA is mandated to remove all foreign nationals, regardless of citizenship, who are found to be inadmissible to Canada and who are subject to an enforceable removal order.

All individuals have the right to due process. However, once they have exhausted all legal avenues, we expect them to respect our immigration laws and leave Canada or be removed by the CBSA. Failure to appear for a removal interview or a scheduled removal date may lead to a Canada-wide arrest warrant and potential detention before removal by the CBSA.  

The Safe Third Country Agreement (NOTE: as of July 22, 2020 – The United States is in Violation of this agreement with Canada) https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-53494561

The Safe Third Country Agreement, signed between Canada and the United States (U.S.) in 2004, requires that refugee claimants seek protection in the first safe country in which they arrive. The Agreement applies to those making an asylum claim at a land border port of entry between Canada and the U.S. It does not apply to those who arrive from the U.S. by sea, between the ports of entry or an inland port such as an airport.

Since the 1980s, countries around the world have been using safe third country-type agreements as a way to address pressures on domestic asylum systems from the continued growth of global migration. Since the mid-1990s, the United Nations Refugee Agency has supported these types of agreements.

The Agreement between Canada and the U.S. is premised on the principle, accepted by the United Nations Refugee Agency, that individuals should seek asylum in the first country they arrive in. U.S. compliance with treaty obligations is overseen by an independent judiciary. The Safe Third Country Agreement remains an important tool for Canada and the U.S. to work together on the orderly handling of refugee claims made in our countries.

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act requires the continual review of all countries designated as safe third countries to ensure that the conditions that led to the designation as a safe third country continue to be met. The asylum system in the U.S. continues to meet the international standards and therefore the U.S. continues to be a safe third country.

There are four types of exceptions to the Safe Third Country Agreement: refugee claimants who have a family member in Canada; unaccompanied minors under the age of 18; individuals holding a valid Canadian visa; and those who have been charged with or convicted of an offence that could subject them to the death penalty in the U.S. or in a third country. Also, the agreement does not apply to claimants who have entered Canada at a location that is not a port of entry.Search for related information by keyword: GV Government and Politics | Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada | Canada | Claim refugee protection from inside Canada | general public | backgrounders | Hon. Ahmed D. Hussen



I am making a claim when I arrive in Canada

You can ask for refugee status as soon as you arrive in Canada either at the border, at an airport or at a seaport by making a Port of Entry (POE) claim.

If you ask to make a refugee claim, an official from the Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) will give you an eligibility interview.

If you are arriving from the United States, there may be restrictions on making a claim. Get legal help if this applies to you.

If you are arriving with a group entering the country illegally, you could be listed as a “Designated Foreign National (DFN)” or “irregular arrival.” You would be detained immediately, and your refugee claim and rights would be affected.

What happens at the eligibility interview?

At your eligibility interview, an officer from the Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) will ask you questions to learn if you are eligible to make a claim(link is external).

The officer will ask questions about your identity, history and the basis of your claim. It is important to tell them all the reasons why you are making a refugee claim.

What you say during the interview will be compared to your Basis of Claim (BOC) form and immigration forms, your supporting documents and your hearing. Do not guess an answer to a question if you are not sure about or cannot remember.

When is someone ineligible?

You could be ineligible to make a refugee claim in Canada if:

  • you have refugee status in another country
  • you arrived from the United States by land, and none of the exceptions apply to you
  • you have been convicted of a serious crime
  • on security grounds, or because of criminal activity or human rights violations
  • you were found ineligible to make a claim in the past
  • you made a refugee claim that was rejected in the past
  • you abandoned or withdrew a refugee claim in the past
  • you have a removal order from Canada

If one or more of these conditions apply, you will not get a refugee hearing and could be returned to your country without your claim being heard. As well, you may be kept in immigration detention.

What if I have language difficulties at the eligibility interview?

If you do not understand English or French, a translator will be provided for you. If you need a translator and you do not have one, ask for one before the interview begins. If you have trouble understanding your translator, or if you think something might have been translated wrong, say something as soon as possible. It is important to have this noted, in case any information is misunderstood.

If you think there were translation problems or misunderstandings at your eligibility interview, you should talk to your lawyer or representative. You might want to say this in your BOC form or at your hearing.

What happens if I am eligible?

If you are eligible to make a refugee claim, your file will be sent to the Refugee Protection Division (RPD) of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB). This usually happens the same day you arrive in Canada after your eligibility interview, but can be up to three days later. This does not mean that you have refugee status–it is just the beginning of the process.

A CBSA officer will help you fill out the following immigration forms:

You will be given a Basis of Claim (BOC) form to complete and submit to the IRB. You only have 15 days to complete your BOC form once your file is sent to the IRB.

You will get the following documents:

  • a refugee document—the Refugee Protection Claim Document (RPCD)
  • a date for a hearing at the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB)
  • a health care document for Interim Federal Health coverage
  • a Medical Report to take to a doctor as part of your claim
  • a list of conditions
  • other immigration-related documents

What should I do next?

The next steps are very important for your claim. You do not have much time, so you must act quickly.

  1. Get legal help: It is very important to find legal help right away. You will need to meet with your lawyer or representative a few times to prepare your forms. Finding good and affordable help in time—such as a lawyer, paralegal or immigration consultant—may be difficult.
  2. Prepare your BOC form: Start completing your BOC form as soon as possible. You have to submit it 15 days after your claim is sent to the IRB. The BOC form can be difficult but is an important part of your claim. It needs to be as complete, clear and consistent as possible.
  3. Collect your documents: Start collecting your documents to support your claim right away. Identity and travel documents should be submitted with your BOC form, but only after they are reviewed by your legal representative. They need to match your BOC form and immigration forms. All other documents are due 10 days before your hearing. If your documents are in a language other than English or French, they must be translated.

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Costa Rica – Asylum Information

Costa Rica works with the United Nations to assist with refugees and asylees.

“UNHCR’s operation in Costa Rica centers around the displacement caused by situations in Colombia, the North of Central America and Venezuela. In 2017, close to 11,000 refugees and asylum-seekers were being hosted in the country.

We are present at key locations where people cross into the country, strengthening the government’s Refugee Staus Determination capacity, advocating for refugee IDs that allow access to the same rights as nationals, and supporting the government’s initiatives for child protection and sexual and gender-based violence prevention and response. We also continue to support Costa Rica’s efforts to help refugees integrate into local communities. 

Through the Living Integration programme, developed by the Costa Rican Migration Agency in collaboration with UNHCR, refugees and asylum seekers are given employment skills training, access to job fairs, and support to set up their own businesses. Nearly 2,000 refugees have benefitted from this initiative since 2014.”https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/costa-rica.html

For information about our work in Costa Rica:

  • Information for refugees and asylum seekers in Costa Rica – help.unhcr.org
  • Visit our country website – Costa Rica (Español)
  • For legislation, case law and UNHCR policy relating to claims for international protection, visit Refworld.

The UNHCR Representative in Costa Rica

Street Address:
Boulevard de Rohrmoser, Avenida 3A y Calle 80, Rohrmoser, Pavas, San José, Costa Rica

Mailing Address:
Apartado Postal 12-1009, Ferrocarril Pacifico, San José, Costa Rica

506 22420700

506 2231 3604


Time Zone:
GMT -6

Working Hours:
Monday: 8:00 – 16:30
Tuesday: 8:00 – 16:30
Wednesday: 8:00 – 16:30
Thursday: 8:00 – 16:30
Friday: 8:00 – 16:30

Public Holidays:
01 January 2020, Ano Nuevo
09 April 2020, Jueves Santo
10 April 2020, Viernes Santo
01 May 2020, Dia del Trabajo
26 May 2020, Eid al-Fitr (observado)
31 July 2020, Eid al-Adha
17 August 2020, DIa de la madre (observado)
15 September 2020, Dia de la Independencia
12 October 2020, Dia de las Culturas
25 December 2020, Dia de Navidad